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Referensi Perintah Dasar Linux


Bila kita menggunakan linux kita tentu akan sering menggunakan perintah-perintah yang ada ada console linux. Hal ini dilakukan karena pada kenyataannya linux lebih mudah dioperasikan malalui console daripada melalui x windows atau GUI. Selain itu perintah melalui console ini dilakukan ketika kita akan mengkonfigurasi sebuah server linux secara remote. Bagi pemula tentu akan sedikit menyulitkan apa lagi yang terbiasa dengan Microsoft Windows yang tinggal klik saja. Berikut ini perintah dasar yang ada di Linux maupun variannya.
File Commands
Code:
ls                   # Directory listing
ls -al # Formatted listing with hidden files
ls -lt # Sorting the Formatted listing by time modification
cd dir # Change directory to dir
cd # Change to home directory
pwd # Show current working directory
mkdir dir # Creating a directory dir
cat >file # Places the standard input into the file
more file # Output the contents of the file
head file # Output the first 10 lines of the file
tail file # Output the last 10 lines of the file
tail -f file # Output the contents of file as it grows,starting with the last 10 lines
touch file # Create or update file
rm file # Deleting the file
rm -r dir # Deleting the directory
rm -f file # Force to remove the file
rm -rf dir # Force to remove the directory dir
cp file1 file2 # Copy the contents of file1 to file2
cp -r dir1 dir2 # Copy dir1 to dir2;create dir2 if not present
mv file1 file2 # Rename or move file1 to file2,if file2 is an existing directory
ln -s file link # Create symbolic link link to file
Process management
Code:
ps                   # To display the currently working processes
top # Display all running process
kill pid # Kill the process with given pid
killall proc # Kill all the process named proc
pkill pattern # Will kill all processes matching the pattern
bg # List stopped or background jobs,resume a stopped job in the background
fg # Brings the most recent job to foreground
fg n # Brings job n to the foreground
File permission
Code:
chmod octal file     # Change the permission of file to octal,which can be found separately for user,group,world by adding,
# 4-read(r)
# 2-write(w)
# 1-execute(x)
Searching
Code:
grep pattern file      # Search for pattern in file
grep -r pattern dir # Search recursively for pattern in dir
command | grep # Search pattern in the output of a command pattern
locate file # Find all instances of file
find . -name filename # Searches in the current directory (represented by a period) and below it, for files and directories with names starting with filename
pgrep pattern # Searches for all the named processes , that matches with the pattern and, by default, returns their ID
System Info
Code:
date                 # Show the current date and time
cal # Show this month's calender
uptime # Show current uptime
w # Display who is on line
whoami # Who you are logged in as
finger user # Display information about user
uname -a # Show kernel information
cat /proc/cpuinfo # Cpu information
cat proc/meminfo # Memory information
man command # Show the manual for command
df # Show the disk usage
du # Show directory space usage
free # Show memory and swap usage
whereis app # Show possible locations of app
which app # Show which applications will be run by default
Compression
Code:
tar cf file.tar file        # Create tar named file.tar containing file
tar xf file.tar # Extract the files from file.tar
tar czf file.tar.gz files # Create a tar with Gzip compression
tar xzf file.tar.gz # Extract a tar using Gzip
tar cjf file.tar.bz2 # Create tar with Bzip2 compression
tar xjf file.tar.bz2 # Extract a tar using Bzip2
gzip file # Compresses file and renames it to file.gz
gzip -d file.gz # Decompresses file.gz back to file
Network
Code:
ping host            # Ping host and output results
whois domain # Get whois information for domains
dig domain # Get DNS information for domain
dig -x host # Reverse lookup host
wget file # Download file
wget -c file # Continue a stopped download
Shortcuts
Code:
ctrl+c               # Halts the current command
ctrl+z # Stops the current command, resume with fg in the foreground or bg in the background
ctrl+d # Logout the current session, similar to exit
ctrl+w # Erases one word in the current line
ctrl+u # Erases the whole line
ctrl+r # Type to bring up a recent command
!! # Repeats the last command
exit # Logout the current session

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